Nov 17, 2020  |   2 minute read

Dependence – Drugs & Alcohol | LDQ

Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ)

Recommended frequency: Every 4 weeks


The Leeds Dependence Questionnaire is a 10-item, self completion questionnaire designed to measure dependence upon a variety of substances. The LDQ has been shown to be understood and valid with people struggling with both alcohol and substance use. The questionnaire was designed to be sensitive to change over time and to be sensitive through the range from mild to severe dependence.

Psychometric Properties

The initial validation study of the LDQ reported estimates of concurrent, discriminant and convergent validities, which are thought to be satisfactory. A principal components analysis produced a single factor accounting for 64% of the variance. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.94 and test-retest reliability was found to be 0.95. The creators of the scale recommend using dependence as a continuous data variable.

Other studies have shown the LDQ to have considerable promise as a brief, psychometrically sound, measure of substance dependence useful across a variety of substances, that has clinical and research utility.



The Scale

Think about your drinking and drug use over the last month…

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All items are scored 0-1-2-3 giving a maximum of 30.  A maximum of two unanswered items can be pro-rated by allocating the mean score for the valid responses. Reliable change is considered a change greater or equal to 4. A functional population score for males is less than 10; and for females is less than 5.

Cut-off scores for levels of dependence are shown in the table below:

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Copyright Information

Raistrick, D., Bradshaw, J., Tober, G., et al. (1994) Development of the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ): a questionnaire to measure alcohol and opiate dependence in the context of a treatment evaluation package. Addiction, 89, 563–72.